[dm-crypt] filesystem conversion guidance needed

Arno Wagner arno at wagner.name
Thu Feb 28 17:00:46 CET 2013

On Thu, Feb 28, 2013 at 09:01:29AM -0600, lxnf98mm at gmail.com wrote:
> I have successfully used the procedure you describe several times to
> convert to raid but never an encrypted partition
> When you say "2. Copy the data over." what am I copying

I realize my explanation was a bit low on detailand ambiguous.

You still copy the files, not the encrypted device or the 
filesystem. Copying anything binarily could cause numerous 
problems that can be avoided by copying data on file-level.

The layering is like this

RAID          <-- This layer gets inserted in the stack
Raw partitions
Raw disks

Hence the RAID does see the raw encrypted partitions
and mirrors them. 

> Normally I would
> cd old_filesystem; tar cf - . |(cd new_filesystem; tar xf -)
> But that would just copy unencrypted data
> Would you explain a bit more

Say you have / on /dev/mapper/root_part decrypted from
/dev/sda3 and your new disk is /dev/sdb. Yiour target md device is
/dev/md3 (avoid name collisions, you specify the number of the md
device and it is persistent). Then you would 
do somethign like below. You can do this from the running old 
system with a few extra things, see below:

1. Make a partition of smaller or exactly size in /dev/ sdb,
   e.g. /dev/sdb3, give it type fb if you want kernel-level
   auto-detection. I highly recommend doing this.
2. Make a new RAID1 on top of /dev/sdb3, using something
   like this
     mdadm --create -n 2 -l 1 --superblock0.90 /dev/md3 /dev/sdb3 missing
3. Make a new LUKS filesystem in top of md3 and map it to, 
   say /dev/mapper/new_root
4. Create filesystem on new_root and mount it.
5. Copy root over with tar, just as you describe.
   If this is from the live installation, do not forget 
   --one-file-system or you will get a full system copy 
   including a memory image from /proc on the new raid partition.
6. If this is with udev and you copy using the installed system,
   make sure to manually create console and null in /dev/ on
   new_root, as it will otherwise not boot:
      cd /dev/mapper/new_root/dev
      mknod -m 660 console c 5 1
      mknod -m 660 null c 1 3

Now you have a copy of your system. Try to boot it by
your usual mechanism, just with /dev/md3 instead of /dev/sda3
as root and with the new LUKS passphrase, unless you use the same
as before (not a security risk increase in this situation).

So far, you have niot changed anything on the old drive.
If you still do not have a full backuck, at the very least 
make one now.

7. From the new running system, change the type of the old
   partitions to fb for auto-detection.
8. Sync them into the new md partitons like this:
      mdadm --add /dev/md3 /dev/sda3
   Here, all your old data will be overwritten. If the new
   partition is smaller, you may also want to zero the old 
   one before this step, though killing the LUKS header 
   makes that redundant. 
9. boot again and make sure the raid device comes up in a non-degraded

Done. Repeat for data partition at your laisure.

Note that the scripts handling the encryption on boot
see as only difference that it is now /dev/md<x> instead
of /dev/sda<y>, that represents the encrypted partitions.

Also note that you can check the state of a raid device and
sync progress with a simple "cat /proc/mdstat". Before
step 8, /dev/md3 will just lost one disk as present, 
after step 8, it should list both.

Arno Wagner,     Dr. sc. techn., Dipl. Inform.,    Email: arno at wagner.name
GnuPG: ID: CB5D9718  FP: 12D6 C03B 1B30 33BB 13CF  B774 E35C 5FA1 CB5D 9718
One of the painful things about our time is that those who feel certainty
are stupid, and those with any imagination and understanding are filled
with doubt and indecision. -- Bertrand Russell

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